halo displays occur all over the world but the polar
regions get the really exquisite ones.
Riikonen of Finland photographed this
extraordinary display while researching halos
at the South Pole during the Antarctic summer
of 98/99 together with Jarmo Moilanen and Marko
Pekkola. The great January 11th display was
formed by low level diamond
dust ice crystals and lasted 50 minutes.
There were a great many rare arcs and those
from Parry oriented crystals were among the
best, if not the best, ever photographed.
Riikonen's three fisheye images capture the sunwards
sky, the whole sky centered on the zenith and halos
in the anthelic direction opposite the sun. Larger
images are on the next three pages. What happened
in those 50 minutes is worth long and careful study.
Mouse over the "Halo key" to identify the
All the South Pole images ©Marko Riikonen,
shown with permission.